Deconvolving images with the instrument Point Spread Function (PSF)

This example demonstrates how to deconvolve an AIA image with the instrument point spread function (PSF).

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

import astropy.units as u
import sunpy.map
from astropy.coordinates import SkyCoord
from astropy.visualization import AsinhStretch, ImageNormalize, LogStretch

import aiapy.data.sample as sample_data
import aiapy.psf

AIA images are subject to convolution with the instrument point-spread function (PSF) due to effects introduced by the filter mesh of the telescope and the CCD, among others. This has the effect of “blurring” the image. The PSF diffraction pattern may also be particularly noticable during the impulsive phase of a flare where the intensity enhancement is very localized. To remove these artifacts, the PSF must be deconvolved from the image.

First, we’ll use a single level 1 image from the 171 Å channel from 15 March 2019. Note that deconvolution should be performed on level 1 images only. This is because, as with the level 1 data, the PSF model is defined on the CCD grid. Once deconvolved, the image can be passed to aiapy.calibrate.register (see the Registering and aligning level 1 data example).

m = sunpy.map.Map(sample_data.AIA_171_IMAGE)
fig = plt.figure()
ax = fig.add_subplot(111, projection=m)
m.plot(
    axes=ax,
)

Next, we’ll calculate the PSF using aiapy.psf.psf for the 171 Å channel. The PSF model accounts for several different effects, including diffraction from the mesh grating of the filters, charge spreading, and jitter. See Grigis et al (2012) for more details. Currently, this only works for \(4096\times4096\) full frame images.

Note that this will be significantly faster if you have a GPU and the cupy package installed.

psf = aiapy.psf.psf(m.wavelength)

We’ll plot just a 500-by-500 pixel section centered on the center pixel. The diffraction “arms” extending from the center pixel can often be seen in flare observations due to the intense, small-scale brightening.

fov = 500
lc_x, lc_y = psf.shape[0] // 2 - fov // 2, psf.shape[1] // 2 - fov // 2
plt.imshow(
    psf[lc_x : lc_x + fov, lc_y : lc_y + fov],
    norm=ImageNormalize(vmin=1e-8, vmax=1e-3, stretch=LogStretch()),
)
plt.colorbar()
plt.show()

Now that we’ve downloaded our image and computed the PSF, we can deconvolve the image with the PSF using the Richardson-Lucy deconvolution algorithm. Note that passing in the PSF is optional. If you exclude it, it will be calculated automatically. However, when deconvolving many images of the same wavelength, it is most efficient to only calculate the PSF once.

As with aiapy.psf.psf, this will be much faster if you have a GPU and cupy installed.

m_deconvolved = aiapy.psf.deconvolve(m, psf=psf)

Let’s compare the convolved and deconvolved images.

norm = ImageNormalize(vmin=0, vmax=1.5e4, stretch=AsinhStretch(0.01))
fig = plt.figure()
ax = fig.add_subplot(121, projection=m)
m.plot(axes=ax, norm=norm)
ax = fig.add_subplot(122, projection=m_deconvolved)
m_deconvolved.plot(axes=ax, annotate=False, norm=norm)
ax.coords[0].set_axislabel(" ")
ax.coords[1].set_axislabel(" ")
ax.coords[1].set_ticklabel_visible(False)
plt.show()

The differences become a bit more obvious when we zoom in. Note that the deconvolution has the effect of “deblurring” the image.

left_corner = 500 * u.arcsec, -600 * u.arcsec
right_corner = 1000 * u.arcsec, -100 * u.arcsec
fig = plt.figure()
m_sub = m.submap(
    SkyCoord(*left_corner, frame=m.coordinate_frame),
    SkyCoord(*right_corner, frame=m.coordinate_frame),
)
ax = fig.add_subplot(121, projection=m_sub)
m_sub.plot(axes=ax, norm=norm)
m_deconvolved_sub = m_deconvolved.submap(
    SkyCoord(*left_corner, frame=m_deconvolved.coordinate_frame),
    SkyCoord(*right_corner, frame=m_deconvolved.coordinate_frame),
)
ax = fig.add_subplot(122, projection=m_deconvolved_sub)
m_deconvolved_sub.plot(axes=ax, annotate=False, norm=norm)
ax.coords[0].set_axislabel(" ")
ax.coords[1].set_axislabel(" ")
ax.coords[1].set_ticklabel_visible(False)
plt.show()

Total running time of the script: ( 0 minutes 0.000 seconds)

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